In 1192 Muslim power arrived in India on a permanent
basis and within 20 years the whole of the Ganges (North India) basin was under Muslim
control. The Mughal emperors are the giants of Indian history and of Muslim rule in India.
The built the Taj Mahal, combined Hindi and Arabic languages to give rise to a new
language Urdu, and generally ushered another golden age of building, arts and literature
British power in India was initially exercised by the East India
Company, which established a trading post at Surat in Gujarat 9Western India) in 1612. The
British were not the first or the only European power with a presence in India in the 17th
century but they soon established their dominance over India which lasted about 200 years.
Opposition to British rule began in earnest at the turn of the 20th century.
Gandhi, an attorney, returned from South Africa to his motherland to question
British rule and insisting on Indias freedom while adopting a policy of passive
resistance, or satyagraha. At the same time WWII dealt a deathblow to colonialism and
Indian independence became inevitable.
Within India, however, the large Muslim minority resented the impending majority
Hindu rule and tensions began to mount between the two. Faced with a political stand-off
and rising tension, the viceroy, Lord Louis Mountbatten, reluctantly decided to divide the
country and set a rapid timetable for independence. When the dividing line was announced,
the greatest exodus in human history took place as Muslims moved to Pakistan and Hindus
and Sikhs relocated to India. The effects of that move are still felt in India and
Pakistan today and the resentment that it caused still divides the two countries.
Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru became the first Prime minister of independent India.
India became a Republic on 26th January, 1950 and Dr. Rajinder Prashad was nominated as
the first President of the Indian republic.